Latest Research

There has been a significant amount of research into the use of Manuka honey as an alternative natural medicine.

ManukaNews recognise that one man has dedicated his life to researching Manuka honey:

Professor Peter Molan and the team at Waikato University.

We would recommend you visit The Honey Research Centre at

Latest Research Documents:

Other Reference Documents: 

1. Gunther RT. The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides. New York: Hafner, 1934 (reprinted 1959).

2. Molan PC. The antibacterial activity of honey. 1.The nature of the antibacterial activity. Bee World 1992; 73(1): 5-28.

3. Brady NF, Molan PC, Harfoot CG. The sensitivity of dermatophytes to the antimicrobial activity of manuka honey and other honey. Pharm Sci 1997; 2: 1-3.

4. Select Committee on Science and Technology. Report no. 7: Resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. London: House of Lords, 1998.

5. Dustmann JH. Antibacterial effect of honey. Apiacta 1979; 14(1): 7-11.

6. Bose B. Honey or sugar in treatment of infected wounds? Lancet 1982; 1(8278): 963.

7. Condon RE. Curious interaction of bugs and bees. Surgery 1993; 113(2): 234-5.

8. Green AE. Wound healing properties of honey. Br J Surg 1988; 75(12): 1278.

9. Keast-Butler J. Honey for necrotic malignant breast ulcers. Lancet 1980; 2(8198): 809.

10. Mossel DA. Honey for necrotic breast ulcers. Lancet 1980; 2(8203): 1091.

11. Seymour FI, West KS. Honey - its role in medicine. Med Times 1951; 79: 104-7.

12. Somerfield SD. Honey and healing. J R Soc Med 1991; 84(3): 179.

13. Tovey FI. Honey and healing. J R Soc Med 1991; 84(7): 447.

14. Chirife J, Herszage L, Joseph A, Kohn ES. In vitro study of bacterial growth inhibition in concentrated sugar solutions: microbiological basis for the use of sugar in treating infected wounds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983; 23(5): 766-73.

15. Herszage L, Montenegro JR, Joseph AL. Tratamiento de las heridas supuradas con accar granulado comercial. Bol Trab Soc Argent Cir 1980; 41(21-22): 315-30.

16. Efem SE. Clinical observations on the wound healing properties of honey. Br J Surg 1988; 75(7): 679-81.

17. Cavanagh D, Beazley J, Ostapowicz F. Radical operation for carcinoma of the vulva. A new approach to wound healing. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1970; 77(11): 1037-40.

18. Armon PJ. The use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds. Trop Doct 1980; 10(2): 91.

19. Braniki FJ. Surgery in Western Kenya. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1981; 63: 348-52.

20. Cooper RA, Molan PC, Harding KG. Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected wounds. J R Soc Med 1999; 92(6): 283-5.

21. Sackett WG. Honey as a carrier of intestinal diseases. Bull Colorado State Univ Agric Exp Stn 1919; 252: 1-18.

22. White JW, Subers MH, Schepartz AI. The identification of inhibine, the antibacterial factor in honey, as hydrogen peroxide and its origin in a honey glucose-oxidase system.Biochim Biophys Acta 1963; 73: 57-70.

23. Dold H, Du DH, Dziao ST. Nachweis antibakterieller, hitze- und lictempfindlicher Hemmungsstoffe Inhibine im Naturhonig Bltenhonig [Detection of the antibacterial heat and light-sensitive substance in natural honey]. Z Hyg Infektionskr 1937; 120: 155-67.

24. Dold H, Witzenhausen R. Ein Verfahren zur Beurteilung der rtlichen inhibitorischen (keimvermehrungshemmenden) Wirkung von Honigsorten verschiedener Herkunft [Method of evaluation of the local inhibitory (antibacterial) substances of honeys from various origins]. Z Hyg Infektionskr 1955; 141: 333-7.

25. Postmes TJ, Bosch MMC, Dutrieux R, van Baare J, Hoekstra MJ. Speeding up the healing of burns with honey. An experimental study with histological assessment of wound biopsies. In: Mizrahi A, Lensky Y, editors. Bee Products: Properties, Applications and Apitherapy. New York: Plenum Press, 1997; 27-37.

26. Hutton DJ. Treatment of pressure sores. Nurs Times 1966; 62(46): 1533-4.

27. Turner FJ. Hydrogen Peroxide and Other Oxidant Disinfectants (3rd ed). Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1983.

28. Saissy JM, Guignard B, Pats B, Guiavarch M, Rouvier B. Pulmonary edema after hydrogen peroxide irrigation of a war wound. Intensive Care Med 1995; 21(3): 287-8.

29. Salahudeen AK, Clark EC, Nath KA. Hydrogen peroxide-induced renal injury. A protective role for pyruvate in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest 1991; 88(6): 1886-93.

30. Halliwell B, Cross CE. Oxygen-derived species: their relation to human disease and environmental stress. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 10: 5-12.

31. Bunting CM. The production of hydrogen peroxide by honey and its relevance to wound healing. MSc thesis. University of Waikato. 2001.

32. Frankel S, Robinson GE, Berenbaum MR. Antioxidant capacity and correlated characteristics of 14 unifloral honeys. J Apic Res 1998; 37(1): 27-31.

33. Burlando F. Sull'azione terapeutica del miele nelle ustioni [The therapeutic effect of honey on burns]. Minerva Dermatol 1978; 113: 699-706.

34. Kumar A, Sharma VK, Singh HP, Prakash P, Singh SP. Efficacy of some indigenous drugs in tissue repair in buffaloes. Indian Vet J 1993; 70(1): 42-4.

35. Kandil A, El-Banby M, Abdel-Wahed K, Abou-Sehly G, Ezzat N. Healing effect of true floral and false non-floral honey on medical wounds. J Drug Res (Cairo) 1987; 17(1-2): 71-5.

36. El-Banby M, Kandil A, Abou-Sehley G, El-Sherif ME, Abdel-Wahed K. Healing effect of floral honey and honey from sugar-fed bees on surgical wounds (animal model). Fourth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, 1989; Cairo.

37. Oryan A, Zaker SR. Effects of topical application of honey on cutaneous wound healing in rabbits. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 1998; 45(3): 181-8.

38. Pruitt KM, Reiter B. Biochemistry of peroxidase system: antimicrobial effects. In: Pruitt KM, Tenovuo JO, editors. The Lactoperoxidase System: Chemistry and Biological Significance. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1985; 144-78.

39. Hyslop PA, Hinshaw DB, Scraufstatter IU, Cochrane CG, Kunz S, Vosbeck K. Hydrogen peroxide as a potent bacteriostatic antibiotic: implications for host defense. Free Radic Biol Med 1995; 19(1): 31-7.

40. Allen KL, Molan PC, Reid GM. A survey of the antibacterial activity of some New Zealand honeys. J Pharm Pharmacol 1991; 43(12): 817-22.

41. Adcock D. The effect of catalase on the inhibine and peroxide values of various honeys. J Apic Res 1962; 1: 38-40.

42. Bogdanov S. Characterisation of antibacterial substances in honey. Lebensm Wiss Technol 1984; 17(2): 74-6.

43. Molan PC, Russel KM. Non-peroxide antibacterial activity in some New Zealand honeys. J Apic Res 1988; 27: 62-7.

44. Roth LA, Kwan S, Sporns P. Use of a disc-assay system to detect oxytetracycline residues in honey. J Food Prot 1986; 49(6): 436-41.

45. Abuharfeil N, Al-Oran R, Abo-Shehada M. The effect of bee honey on the proliferative activity of human B- and T-lymphocytes and the activity of phagocytes. Food Agric Immunol1999; 11: 169-77.

46. Tonks A, Cooper RA, Price AJ, Molan PC, Jones KP. Stimulation of tnf-alpha release in monocytes by honey. Cytokine 2001; 14(4): 240-2.

47. Ryan GB, Majno G. Inflammation. Michigan: Upjohn, 1977.

48. Aristotle. Historia Animalium (350 BC). Oxford: Oxford University, 1910.

49. Floris I, Prota R. Sul miele amaro di Sardegna [Bitter honey from Sardegna]. Apic Mod 1989; 80(2): 55-67.

50. Fotidar MR, Fotidar SN. 'Lotus' honey. Indian Bee J 1945; 7: 102.

51. Abbas T. Royal treat. Living in the Gulf 1997; 50-1.

52. d'Agostino Barbaro A, La Rosa C, Zanelli C. Attivit antibatterica di mieli Siciliani [Antibacterial activity of Sicilian honeys]. Quad Nutr 1961; 21(1/2): 30-44.

53. Buchner R. Vergleichende Untersuchungen ber die antibakteriellen Wirkung von Bluten- und Honigtauhonigen [Comparative study of the antibacterial activities of honey].Sdwestdeutscher Imker 1966; 18: 240-1.

54. Christov G, Mladenov S. Proprists antimicrobiennes du miel [Antimicrobial properties of milk]. CR Acad Bulg Sci 1961; 14(3): 303-6.

55. Efem SE. Recent advances in the management of Fournier's gangrene: preliminary observations. Surgery 1993; 113(2): 200-4.

56. Phuapradit W, Saropala N. Topical application of honey in treatment of abdominal wound disruption. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1992; 32(4): 381-4.

57. Harris S. Honey for the treatment of superficial wounds: a case report and review. Primary Intention 1994; 2(4): 18-23.

58. Ndayisaba G, Bazira L, Habonimana E, Muteganya D. Clinical and bacteriological outcome of wounds treated with honey. J Orthop Surg 1993; 7(2): 202-4.

59. Subrahmanyam M. A prospective randomised clinical and histological study of superficial burn wound healing with honey and silver sulfadiazine. Burns 1998; 24(2): 157-61.

60. Dumronglert E. A follow-up study of chronic wound healing dressing with pure natural honey. J Nat Res Counc Thail 1983; 15(2): 39-66.

61. Vardi A, Barzilay Z, Linder N, Cohen HA, Paret G, Barzilai A. Local application of honey for treatment of neonatal postoperative wound infection. Acta Paediatr 1998; 87(4): 429-32.

62. Wadi M, Al-Amin H, Farouq A, Kashef H, Khaled SA. Sudanese bee honey in the treatment of supprating wounds. Arab Medico 1987; 3: 16-8.

63. Subrahmanyam M. Early tangential excision and skin grafting of moderate burns is superior to honey dressing: a prospective randomised trial. Burns 1999; 25(8): 729-31.

64. Subrahmanyam M. Topical application of honey in treatment of burns. Br J Surg 1991; 78(4): 497-8.

65. Willix DJ, Molan PC, Harfoot CG. A comparison of the sensitivity of wound-infecting species of bacteria to the antibacterial activity of manuka honey and other honey. J Appl Bacteriol 1992; 73(5): 388-94.

66. Cooper RA, Molan PC. The use of honey as an antiseptic in managing Pseudomonas infection. J Wound Care 1999; 8(4): 161-4.

67. Allen KL, Hutchinson G, Molan PC. The potential for using honey to treat wounds infected with MRSA and VRE. First World World Healing Congress, 2000; Melbourne, Australia.

68. Cooper RA, Halas E, Davies R, Molan PC, Harding KG. The inhibition of Gram-positive cocci of clinical importance by honey. First World World Healing Congress, 2000; Melbourne, Australia.

69. Betts JA, Molan PC. A pilot trial of honey as a wound dressing has shown the importance of the way honey is applied to wounds. 11th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2001; Dublin, Ireland.

70. Wood B, Rademaker M, Molan P. Manuka honey, a low cost leg ulcer dressing. N Z Med J 1997; 110(1040): 107.

71. Dunford C, Cooper R, Molan P. Using honey as a dressing for infected skin lesions. Nurs Times 2000; 96(14 Suppl): 7-9.

72. Dunford C, Cooper R, White RJ, Molan P. The use of honey in wound management. Nurs Standard 2000; 15(11): 63-8.

73. Natarajan S, Williamson D, Grey JA, Harding KG, Cooper RA. Healing of an MRAS-colonised, hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcer with honey. J Dermat Treat 2001; 12: 33-6.

74. Robson V, Ward RG, Molan PC. The use of honey in split-skin grafting. 10th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 2000; Harrogate, UK.

75. Al-Waili NS, Saloom KY. Effects of topical honey on post-operative wound infections due to gram positive and gram negative bacteria following caesarean sections and hysterectomies. Eur J Med Res 1999; 4(3): 126-30.

76. Kiistala R, Hannuksela M, Makinen-Kiljunen S, Niinimki A, Haahtela T. Honey allergy is rare in patients sensitive to pollens. Allergy 1995; 50(10): 844-7.

77. Helbling A, Peter C, Berchtold E, Bogdanov S, Mller U. Allergy to honey: relation to pollen and honey bee allergy. Allergy 1992; 47(1): 41-9.

78. Bauer L, Kohlich A, Hirschwehr R, Siemann U, Ebner H, Scheiner O, Kraft D, Ebner C. Food allergy to honey: pollen or bee products? Characterization of allergenic proteins in honey by means of immunoblotting. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996; 97(1 Pt 1): 65-73.

79. Emarah MH. A clinical study of the topical use of bee honey in the treatment of some occular diseases. Bull Islamic Med 1996; 2(5): 422-5.

80. Subrahmanyam M. Honey impregnated gauze versus polyurethane film (OpSite) in the treatment of burns - a prospective randomised study. Br J Plast Surg 1993; 46(4): 322-3.

81. Subrahmanyam M. Honey dressing versus boiled potato peel in the treatment of burns: a prospective randomized study. Burns 1996; 22(6): 491-3.

82. Bulman MW. Honey as a surgical dressing. Middlesex Hospital Journal 1955; 55: 188-9.

83. McInerney RJ. Honey - a remedy rediscovered. J R Soc Med 1990; 83(2): 127.

84. Bergman A, Yanai J, Weiss J, Bell D, David MP. Acceleration of wound healing by topical application of honey. An animal model. Am J Surg 1983; 145(3): 374-6.

85. Gupta SK, Singh H, Varshney AC, Prakash P. Therapeutic efficacy of honey in infected wounds in buffaloes. Indian J Anim Sci 1992; 62(6): 521-3.

86. Molan PC, Allen KL. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey. J Pharm Pharmacol 1996; 48(11): 1206-9.

87. Postmes T, van den Bogaard AE, Hazen M. The sterilization of honey with cobalt 60 gamma radiation: a study of honey spiked with spores of Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus subtilis. Experientia 1995; 51(9-10): 986-9.

88. Molan PC, Betts J. Using honey dressings: the practical considerations. Nurs Times 2000; 96(49): 36-7.

89. Soffer A. Editorial: Chihuahuas and laetrile, chelation therapy, and honey from Boulder, Colo. Arch Intern Med 1976; 136(8): 865-6.

90. Greenwood D. Honey for superficial wounds and ulcers. Lancet 1993; 341(8837): 90-1.